Ahmad, A., Davies, J., Randall, S., Skinner, G. R. B., Antiviral properties of extract of Opuntia streptacantha. Antiviral Res. 1996, 30, 75–85. Alarcon-Aguilar, F. J., Valdes-Arzate, A., Xolalpa-Molina, S., Banderas-Dorantes, T., Jimenez-Estrada, M., Hernandez- Galicia, E., Roman-Ramos, R., Hypoglycemic activity of two polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus-indica and O. streptacantha. Proc. Western Pharmacol. Soc. 2003, 46, 139 – 142. Dok-Go, H., Lee, K. H., Kim, H. J., Lee, E. H., Lee, J., Song, Y. S., Lee, Y.-H., Jin, C., Lee, Y. S., Cho, J., Neuroprotective effects of antioxidative flavonoids quercetin, (+)-dihydroquercetin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. Brain Res. 2003, 965, 130 –136. Dominguez Lopez, A., Revision: Empleo de los frutos y de los cladodios de la chumbera (Opuntia spp.) en la alimentacion humana. Food Sci. Technol. Int. 1995, 1, 65–74. Enigbokan, M. A., Felder, T. B., Thompson, J. O., Kuti, J. O., Ekpenyong, K. I., Hypoglycaemic effects of Opuntia ficusindica Fernandez, M. L., Lin, E. C. K., Trejo, A., McNamara, D. J., Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin reverses low density lipoprotein receptor suppression induced by a hypercholesterolemic diet in guinea pigs. J. Nutr. 1992, 122, 2330 –2340. Fernandez, M. L., Lin, E. C. K., Trejo, A., McNamara, D. J., Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism without affecting cholesterol absorption in guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. J. Nutr. 1994, 124, 817–824. Fernandez, M. L., Trejo, A., McNamara, D. J., Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) modifies low density lipoprotein metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs. J. Nutr. 1990, 120, 1283 –1290. Frati, A. C., Jimenez, E., Raffll Ariza, C., Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia ficus indica in non insulin-dependent Diabetes mellitus patients. Phytother. Res. 1990, 4, 195 –197. Galati, E. M., Mondello, M. R., Monforte, M. T., Galluzo, M., Miceli, N., Tripodo, M. M., Effect of Opuntia ficusindica L.) Mill. cladodes in the wound-healing process. J. Profess. Assoc. Cactus Develop. 2003, 5, 1–16.
Chavez-Santoscoy RA, Gutierrez-Uribe JA, Serna-Saldívar SO Abstract Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer.
Galati, E. M., Monforte, M. T., Tripodo, M. M., D’Aquino, A., Mondello, M. R., Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001, 76, 1–9. Abstract: In Sicily folk medicine, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes are used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. We studied the effect of administration of lyophilized cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. In this paper, we report the ultrastructural observations of gastric mucosa. The ultrastructural changes were observed by trasmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming the protective effect exercised by administration of lyophilized cladodes. Pre-treatment test in rats revealed a protective action against ethanol-induced ulcer. Probably, the mucilage of Opuntia ficus indica is involved.
Galati, E. M., Pergolizzi, S., Miceli, N., Monforte, M. T., Tripodo, M. M., Study on the increment of the production of gastric mucus in rats treated with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 83, 229 –233. Abstract: Opuntia ficus indica cladodes are used in traditional medicine of many countries for their cicatrisant activity. The major components of cladodes are carbohydrate-containing polymers, which consist of a mixture of mucilage and pectin. In this paper we studied the cytoprotective effects of cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. The O. ficus indica cladodes administration gives rise to cytoprotection phenomena by breaking up the epithelial cells and stimulating an increase in mucus production. When O. ficus indica cladodes are administered as a preventive therapy, keep the gastric mucosa under normal condition by preventing mucus dissolution caused by ethanol and favouring mucus production. An increase of mucus production is also observed during the course of the curative treatment. The treatment with O. ficus indica cladodes provokes an increase in the number of secretory cells. Probably, the gastric fibroblasts are involved in the antiulcer activity.
Galati, E. M., Tripodo, M. M., Trovato, A., Miceli, N., Monforte, M. T., Biological effects of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. Note I: diuretic activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 79, 17–21. Abstract: In this work we studied in rat the diuretic activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. The cladodes, flowers and non commerciable fruits were collected in S. Cono (CT, Sicily) cultivation. Acute and chronic diuretic activity of 15% infusion of cladodes, flowers and fruits were assayed. Natriuresis, kaliuresis and the activity on fructose-induced hyperuricemia was also studied. The results show that O. ficus indica cladode, fruit and flower infusions significantly increase diuresis. This effect is more marked with the fruit infusion and it is particularly significant during the chronic treatment. The fruit infusion shows alsoantiuric effect. In all experiments cladode, flower and fruit infusions showed a modest but not significant increase in natriuresis and kaliuresis.
Galati E. M., Monforte M. T., Miceli N., Mondello M. R., Taviano M. F., Galluzzo M., Tripodo M. M. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. mucilages show Cytoprotective Effect on Gastric Mucosa in Rat . Phytother. Res. 21, 344–346 (2007). Abstract: Opuntia ficus indica cladodes possess a protective action against ethanol-induced ulcer in the rat. The major components of cladodes are carbohydrate polymers, mainly mucilages and pectin. To clarify the cytoprotective effects of cladodes on experimental ethanolinduced ulcer in rat, mucilages and pectin were extracted and were administered instead of cladodes. The above mentioned effects induced by cladodes may be attributed to mucilages, and not significantly to pectin. Han, Y. N., Choo, Y., Lee, Y.-C., Moon, Y.-I., Kim, S.-D., Choi, J.-W., Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. Arch. Pharmacal Res. 2001, 24, 51–54. Hegwood, D. A., Human health discoveries with Opuntia sp. Hort Science 1990, 25, 1515 –1516. Lee, E. B., Hyun, J. E., Li, D. W., Moon, Y. I., Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten stem on gastric damage in rats. Arch. Pharmacal Res. 2002, 25, 67–70. Lee, E. B., Hyun, J. E., Li, D. W., Moon, Y. I., The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten fruit on gastric lesion and ulcer in rats. Nat. Prod. Sci. 2001, 7, 90–93. Lee, J.-C., Kim, H. R., Kim, J., Jang, Y.-S., Antioxidant property of an ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficusindica var. saboten. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 6490 –6496. Lee, Y. S., Park, H., Jin, C., Kim, H. J., Cho, J., Park, M., Song, Y., Use of an Opuntia ficus-indica extract and compounds isolated therefrom for protecting nerve cells. WO Patent 03/037324 A1 (08. 05. 2003). Park, E.-H., Chun, M.-J., Wound healing activity of Opuntia ficus-indica. Fitoterapia 2001, 72, 165–167. Park, E.-H., Kahng, J.-H., Lee, S. H., Shin, K.-H., An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus. Fitoterapia 2001, 72, 288–290. Park, E.-H., Kahng, J.-H., Paek, E.-A., Studies on the pharmacological actions of cactus: Identification of its antiflammatory effect. Arch. Pharmacal Res. 1998, 21, 30–34.