Anonymous: Schachtelhalm (nicht nur) für die Niere. [Horsetail plant (not only) for the kidney]. Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin Praxis [Revue suisse de médecine Praxis], 2005; 94 (6):222-3.
Amarowicz R; Pegg RB; Rahimi-Moghaddam P; Barl B; Weil JA: Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies. Food Chemistry, 2004; 84 (4):551-62. Abstract
: Different ethanolic extracts from the roots of wild liquorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota), narrow-leaved echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia), senega (Polygala senega), leaves of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uvae-ursi) and aerial parts of two varieties of horsetail (Equisetum spp.) (dry extract, DER unclear, extraction solvent 95 % ethanol) were prepared and evaluated for their free-radical scavenging capacity and their antioxidant activity by a number of chemical assays. Assays employed included a beta-carotene-linoleic acid (linoleate) model system, reducing power, scavenging effect on the DPPH free radical and capacity to scavenge hydroxyl free radicals (HO), by use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The bearberry-leaf extract, followed by horsetail exhibited the highest antioxidant activity based on the tests performed. The polyphenolic constituents appear to be responsible, at least in part, for the extract's radical-scavenging capacity.
Andrade-Cetto A; Heinrich M: Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2005; 99 (3):325-48.
Aswal BS; Bhakuni DS; Goel AK; Kar K; Mehrotra BN: Screening of Indian Plants for Biological Activity: Part XI. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1984; 22 (9):487-504.
Belkin M; Fitzgerald DB; Felix MD: Tumor-damaging capacity of plant materials: II. Plants used as diuretics: Journal of the National Cancer Instittute, 1952; 13 (3):741-4.
Carnat A; Petitjean-Freytet C; Muller D; Lamaison JL: Teneurs en principaux constituants de la prêle, Equisetum arvense L. [Main constituents of the sterile fronds of Equisetum arvense L.] Plantes Médicinales et Phytothérapie, 1991; 25 (1):32-8.
Dos Santos Junior JG; Blanco MM; Do Monte FH; Russi M; Lanziotti VM; Leal LK; Cunha GM: Sedative and anticonvulsant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense. Fitoterapia, 2005; 76 (6):508-13.
Dos Santos Junior JG; do Monte FHM; Blanco MM; Lanziotti VMdNB; Maia FD; Leal LKdA: Cognitive enhancement in aged rats after chronic administration of Equisetum arvense L. with demonstrated antioxidant properties in vitro. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2005; 81 (3):593-600. Abstract
:The acute toxicity study of the hydroalcoholic extract of Equisetum arvense (HAE) (“the dried stems were extracted with 50 % ethanol-water, DER unclear”) showed that in the dose of 2 and 5 g /kg i.p. rat the extract induced mortality in 12 % and 37.5 % of the animals. Because the LD50s was higher than 5 g/kg the extract was considered as non-toxic. The author noted that chronic administration of the dose utilized in the study did not result in toxicity which may support the intense, chronic and popular use.
Fabre B; Geay B; Beaufils P: Thiaminase activity in Equisetum arvense and its extracts. Plantes Medicinales Phytothérapie, 1993; 26 (3):190-7.
Ganeva Y; Chanev C; Dentchev T: Triterpenoids and sterols from Equisetum arvense: Dokladi na B"lgarskata Akademiya na Naukite, 2001; 54 (2):53-6.
Ghazala N; Iqbal SH; Bhutta AA: Equisetum: an excellent host for VAM infections. BiologiaPakistan, 1987; 33 (1):97-108.
Gräfe U; Gumbinger HG; Winterhoff H; Veit M: Urinary metabolites of phenolic compounds of Equisetum arvense. 2nd International Congress of Phytomedicine and 7th Congress of the Society of Phytotherapy in Cooperation with ESCOP 1996; 82.
Graefe EU; Veit M: Urinary metabolites of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in humans after application of a crude extract from Equisetum arvense.
Phytomedicine, 1999; 6 (4):239-46.
Grases F; Melero G; Costa-Bauza A; Prieto R; March JG: Urolithiasis and phytotherapy. International Urology and Nephrology, 1994; 26 (5):507-11. Abstract
: The effects of seven plants that have been applied to prevent and treat kidney stone formation (Verbena officinalis, Lithospermum officinale, Taraxacum officinale, Equisetum arvense, Arctostaphylos uvae-ursi, Arctium lappa and Silene saxifraga) have been studied using 12 female Wistar rats for each plant. The studied herbs were given by infusion. E. arvense infusion was prepared from 3 g herb/l water. Variations of the main urolithiasis risk factors (citraturia, calciuria,
phosphaturia, pH and diuresis) have been evaluated. No relevant difference was found in diuresis. None of the studied infusions affect calciuria and citraturia values. The authors concluded that beneficial effects caused by these herb infusions on urolithiasis can be attributed to some disinfectant action, and tentatively to the presence of saponins. Some solvent action can be postulated with respect to uric stones or heterogeneous uric nucleus, due to the pH -increasing capacity of some herb infusions.
Gürocak S; Küpeli B: Consumption of Historical and Current Phytotherapeutic Agents form Urolithiasis: A Critical Review: Journal of Urology, 2006; 176 (2):450-5.
Hänsel R., Keller K., Rimpel H., Schneider G.: Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis 5. Ed.; Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993, Vol. 5: Drogen E-O, 64-9.
Hamon NW; Awang DV: Horsetail: Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, 1992; 125:399-401.
Henderson JA; Evans EV; McIntosh RA: The antithiamine action of Equisetum. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1952; 120 (903):375-378.
Hesse A; Vahlensieck W: Harntee 400 for the Prophylaxis of Urolithiasis Recurrence. [Ger.] Therapiewoche, 1985; 35 (16):1975-80.
Hoppe HA: Equisetum hyemale. In: Hoppe HA: Drogenkunde, Walter de Gruyter Verlag Berlin, 8. Ed. 1975; 174.
Husson GP; Vilagines R; Delaveau P: Research into the antiviral properties of a few natural extracts: Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, 1986; 44 (1):41-8. Abstract
: A test for antiviral properties using cell cultures and the results with a series of plant extracts (alcoholic (content unclear) extract of fresh plant of E. arvense (5 : 1)) are described. Equisetum arvense showed an antiviral effect.
Ingram TJ: Compositions comprising equisetum and symphytum and methods for the treatment of symptoms associated with mycoplasma infection: Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents, 2002; 1260 (2): http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/patdata.html
Joksic G; Stankovic M; Novak A: Antibacterial medicinal plants Equiseti herba and Ononidis radix modulate micronucleus formation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, 2003; 22 (1):41-8.
Katalinic V; Milos M; Kulisic T; Jukic M: Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chemistry, 2006; 94 (4):550-7. Abstract
: The total phenolic content and related total antioxidant capacity of 70 medicinal plant infusions was analyzed. Aqueousus extracts were prepared as infusion, (3 g of the herb with 200 ml boiled water). The total phenolics were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. To make a practical comparison of the relative antioxidant potential of phenolics extracted from selected medicinal plants, the phenol antioxidant coefficient (PAC) was calculated for each infusion. There was a significant linear correlation between total phenolic content and FRAP. The best results were obtained for Melissae folium infusions. Equisetum herba had a Phenol antioxidant coefficient of 2.5 (The PAC was ranging from 1.1 to 3.9).
Lovkova MY; Shelepova OV; Sokolova SM; Sabirova NS; Rabinovich AM: Selenium in medicinal plants of the Russian flora. Biology Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1993; 20 (6):669-673 paper translated from Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya 1993; 6:833-8.
Madaus G: Equisetum arvense et Equisetum hiemale. In: Madaus G: Lehrbuch der biologischen Heilmittel. Georg Thieme Verlag Leipzig, 1938; 1:1267-78.
Madaus G: Equisetum arvense et Equisetum hyemale. In: Madaus G: Lehrbuch der biologischen Heilmittel, Georg Olms Verlag Hildesheim, 1976 (ISBN 3-4870-589); 1267-77.
Nagai T; Myoda T; Nagashima T: Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail (tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L.. Food Chemistry, 2005; 91 (3):389-94. Abstract
: Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail Equisetum arvense (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. (5 g herb were extracted by 5 volumes water or ethanol (unknown concentration), devaporated and solved in 1 ml ethanol (unknown concentration). 0.1 and 1.0 sample solutions were used.) The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. The protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions than in water extract fractions. The ethanolic fractions had antioxidative activities, similar to that of 5 mM ascorbic acid. Water extracts of both portions showed high superoxide anion radical-scavenging activities. Hydroxyl radicals were effectively scavenged by ethanol extracts. The authors concluded that field horsetail (tsukushi) is rich in vitamins C and E. Moreover it contains high levels of copper and zinc. These are essential elements for superoxide dismutase to act against active oxygen species.
Oh H; Kim DH; Cho JH; Kim YC: Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic petrosins and flavonoids isolated from Equisetum arvense. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2004; 95(2-3):421-4.
Pérez Gutiérrez RM; Yescas Laguna G; Walkowski A: Diuretic activity of Mexican equisetum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1985; 14 (2/3):269-72.
Robert S: Phytotherapie et Affections du Systeme Uro-Genital. [Phytotherapy and affections of the urogenital system] Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique, 1986; 41 (5):40-5.
Schneider K; Kubelka W: Zur Hamolytischen Wirkung Von Schachtelhalmkraut (Herba Equiseti) [Hemolytic effect of horsetail (Herba equiseti)] Scientia Pharmaceutica, 1989; 57 (3):214-5.
Steenkamp V: Phytomedicines for the prostate. Fitoterapia, 2003; 74 (6):545-52.
Veit M: Probleme Bei der Bewertung pflanzlicher Diuretika. Als Beispiel Schachtelhalmkraut DAB 10 (Equiseti herba) [Problems of the evaluation of herbal diuretics. For example herb of Horsetail DAB 10 (Equiseti herba)] Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie, 1994; 15 (6):331-41.
Veit M (1996) Zur Pharmakokinetik pflanzlicher Phenole. Pharmazeutische Zeitung 141(12): 52-3
Veit M; Cygan FC; Geiger H: Seasonal and intraspecific variations in flavonoids of Equisetum arvense. Planta Medica, 1991; 57 (Supplement issue 2) A 3.
Veit M; Bauer K; Geiger H; Cygan FC: Flavonoids of Equisetum hybrids in the subgenus Equisetum. Planta Medica, 1992; 58 (Supplement issue 1), A 697.
De Villar GPN; Loria V; Monereo S: Tratamientos «Alternativos» de la Obesidad: Mito y Realidad [«Alternative» drugs for obesity treatment: Myth and reality] Medicina Clinica, 2003; 121 (13):500-10.
Vollmer V; Hindemith H: Untersuchungen über die diuretische Wirkung von Ononis spinosa L. und Equisetum arvense L. an Kaninchen und Mäusen; Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 1937; 186:565-73.
Vollmer H; Hübner K: Untersuchung über die diuretische Wirkung der Fructus juniperi, Radix levistici, Radix ononidis, Folia betulae, Radix liquiritae und Herba equiseti an Ratten; Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 1937; 186:592-605.
Vollmer H: Bemerkungen zur Technik des Diureseversuches erläutert an Hand einiger Coffeinversuche-zugleich Bemerkungen über die diuretischen Wirkung von Hauhechel und Schachtelhalm. Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 1939; 193:483-9.
Vollmer H: Untersuchungen über einige pflanzliche Diuretica; Fortschritte der Therapie, 1941; 19:322.
Wachter R: Vergleichende Versuche über die diuretischen Wirkung einiger in der Volksmedizin gebräuchlicher Pflanzen, Dissertation, Gießen 1938
Weidner C; Veit M; Czygan FC: Accumulation Dynamics of Caffeic Acid Conjugates in Equisetum arvense. Planta Medica, 1991; 57 (Supplement issue 2), A37.