Evidenze Cliniche ed Riferimenti Bigliografici
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Francia meridionale, Italia, Nord Africa (luoghi incolti e sabbiosi).
Pianta perenne, erbacea, munita di rizoma (3-4 mm), un po’ depresso con internodi lunghi 3-6 cm, squame grandi, corteccia più sottile del cilindro interno, superficie pieghettata in senso longitudinale. I culmi in parte sterili ed in parte fertili, sono lisci e glabri; le foglie hanno la guaina glabra, il lembo leggermente seghettato, ruvido sulla faccia superiore, leggermente tomentoso sulla faccia inferiore. Le spighe, lunghe 6-10 cm, sono inserite in numero da 3 a 7 sull’apice del culmo relativo, con disposizione digitata. Il frutto è una cariosside. Cresce con gran rapidità e si moltiplica per via vegetativa così da soffocare tutte le piante circostanti.
Diuretiche e depurative, emollienti, ipoglicemiche e ipolipidemiche.
Calcolosi renale e stati infiammatori dell’apparato genitourinario, coliche renali. Studi recenti hanno fornito conferma scientifica dell’impiego tradizionale della pianta nel trattamento della calcolosi renale, dimostrandone la capacità di prevenire ed eliminare la deposizio ne di ossalati di calcio a livello dei reni. Pianta dotata di attività diuretica ed emolliente, è da sempre impiegata nel trattamento degli stati infiammatori a carico del tratto digerente e dell’apparato genitourinario. Secondo alcuni autori la sua azione sedativa risulterebbe particolarmente efficace nei casi di coliche renali e nella cistite (Leclerc). Nella medicina tradizionale indiana il Cynodon viene utilizzato come rimedio per la terapia del diabete.
Il termine gramigna deriva da graminis (stelo d’erba) a sua volta derivante da gradior (camminare) allusione al vegetare dei rizomi. Già Dioscoride e Plinio utilizzavano la gramigna per facilitare la diuresi, dissolvere i calcoli e guarire le infiammazioni vescicali.
Ahmed S., Reza M.S., Jabbar A., 1994. Antimicrobial activity of Cynodon dactylon. Fitoterapia 65, 463–464.
Atmani F., Sadki C., Aziz M., Mimouni M., Hacht B., Cynodon dactylon extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis. Urol Res. 2009 Apr;37(2):75-82. Epub 2009 Jan 29. Abstract: Cynodon dactylon (Poaceae family) decoction was used in the treatment of kidney stones. However, no scientific study was undertaken so far to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the plant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of Cynodon aqueous extract as a preventive and curative agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used in the experiment to induce calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition into kidneys. In preventive protocol, Cynodon decoction was administered in the same day with EG to evaluate the ability of the extract to prevent crystal deposition. However, in curative protocol, rats were first rendered nephrolithiasic and then the extract was administered to assess the ability of the plant to eliminate the pre-existing crystal deposition. In both protocols, urinary biochemical and other variables were measured during the course of the study. Crystalluria and renal histology were examined as well. The results showed that, in both protocols, all measured variables were similar for both the rat groups. Nevertheless, urinary biochemical analysis was apparently unaffected by the extract except oxalate in preventive protocol, and calcium, sodium, and potassium in curative protocol which were significantly highly excreted in treated rats compared to untreated animals. Crystalluria was characterized mostly by the presence of large quantities of CaOx monohydrate and CaOx dihydrate particles in untreated rats. However, crystalluria was mainly dominated by the presence of CaOx dihydrate particles with reduced size. The most apparent beneficial effect of Cynodon extract was seen in kidney tissues where reduced levels of CaOx deposition have been noticed especially in medullary and papillary sections from treated rats. We concluded that C. dactylon extract has beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition into kidneys. Such findings provide a scientific explanation for its use in the treatment of kidneys stones. Patil M.B., Jalalpure S.S., Prakash N.S., Kokate C.K., 2005. Antiulcer properties of alcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon in rats. Acta Horticulture 680, 115–118.
Santosh Kumar Singh, Achyut Narayan Kesari, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Dolly Jaiswal, Geeta Watal, Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cynodon dactylon extract in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, respectively. The effect of repeated oral administration of aqueous extract on serum lipid profile in diabetic rats was also examined. A range of doses, viz. 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg bw of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon were evaluated and the dose of 500 mg/kg was identified as the most effective dose. It lowers blood glucose level around 31% after 4 h of administration in normal rats. The same dose of 500 mg/kg produced a fall of 23% in blood glucose level within 1 h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) of mild diabetic rats. This dose has almost similar effect as that of standard drug tolbutamide (250 mg/kg bw). Severely diabetic rats were also treated daily with 500 mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 59% was observed in fasting blood glucose level. A reduction in the urine sugar level and increase in body weight of severe diabetic rats were additional corroborating factors for its antidiabetic potential. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 35, 77 and 29%, respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) was increased by 18%. These results clearly indicate that aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.
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